The history of lacquer miniature in Kholui is very similar to Palekh and Mstera. The small town of Kholui well known today as a center of lacquer miniature painting in Russia. In addition, before the Revolution of 1917, Kholui had one of the most famous school's and workshop's of iconography. The new atheist ideology of communist Russia changed the lives of thousands of painters. Kholui icon workshops were closed. The artists formed their own guild to paint lacquer miniature art on pâpier maché. The traditions of their icon-painting heritage were not forgotten, merely redirected into a new form. Kholui lacquer miniature artists continued to use the egg tempera paints that they had previously employed in painting icons . The themes for miniature paintings vary from Russian fairy-tales to Russian epics, folklore, and history.